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教你填料塔出故障自己修! 20种方法够你用了


     目前,填料塔的应用范围远远大于板式塔,后者渐渐被淘汰,前者具有通两大、效率高、降压低、持液量小等很多优点。不过,填料塔发生故障的时候也比较多,怎样诊断并处理呢?


       原因1

  气体分布不均,通常为塔釜气相入口无气体分布器。

  故障现象:

  全塔效率低,但塔压降设计误差不大。一般减小气相负荷或增加回流可明显改善分离效率。另外,雾沫夹带现象严重,在高负荷操作时,塔压降大。

  处理方法:

  增设气体分布器。



  原因2

  液体分布器问题:

  1、设计不合理

  2、分布器腐蚀漏液

  3、安装水平度差

  4、超过操作弹性

  5、分布器堵塞

  故障现象:

  全塔效率低,塔压降与设计误差不大。通常可根据塔各段的分离效率,来确定哪个分布器出现问题。

  由1、3、4引起的效率低,增加回流可使效率提高。

  由2、5引起的效率低,则需要对分布器进行检修。

  处理方法:

  改进设计,重新加工制作分布器;

  修补或更换分布器;

  重新安装,调水平度;

  调整分布孔的密度;

  清除堵塞。




  原因3

  液体收集器漏液

  1、降液管太小或入口阻力大,造成降液困难,液体由升气管漏液;

  2、密封不好,漏液或百叶窗式收集器溅液。

  故障现象:

  塔的分离效率差、压降大、通量小。

  处理方法:

  1、增大降液管直径或扩大降液管入口尺寸;

  2、改善挡液板角度和尺寸,防止漏液。



  原因4

  液体分布器在塔内的安装位置出现错误。

  故障现象:

  塔低负荷操作时,分离效率较高。而在高负荷操作时,分离效率较差。

  处理方法:

  按设计要求,重新安装液体分布器。



  原因5

  填料安装质量问题:

  1、散装填料填充太松,规整填料盘间或与塔壁间的间隔大;

  2、填料变形或破损。

  故障现象:

  1、塔压降小,分离效率差;

  2、塔压降大,操作上限低。在低负荷下操作,塔分离效率较高。

  处理方法:

  按设计要求,重新安装塔填料。



  原因6

  填料被物料等堵塞,塑料填料软化。

  故障现象:

  阻力大,分离效率差,操作上限低。

  处理方法:

  清洗或更换填料。



  原因7

  填料被腐蚀。

  故障现象:

  塔压降忽高忽低,分离效率很差。

  处理方法:

  采用耐腐蚀材质,更换填料。



  原因8

  填料支撑开孔率低。

  故障现象:

  高负荷操作时,塔分离效率低。低负荷操作时,塔分离效率高。

  处理方法:

  更换开孔率足够大的填料支撑。



  原因9

  填料压板开孔率低。

  故障现象:

  高负荷操作时,压降高、效率低、易液泛低负荷操作时,塔运行正常。

  处理方法:

  更换开孔率足够大填料压板。



  原因10

  不同类型或型号的填料在塔内安装位置错误。

  故障现象:

  达不到设计负荷。

  处理方法:

  按设计要求重新安装塔填料。

At present, the application of packing tower is much larger than the plate tower, the latter is gradually eliminated, the former has the advantages of two large, high efficiency, low blood pressure, small amount of liquid, and so on. However, the packing tower has a fault when it is more, how to diagnose and deal with it? 
Cause 1

The gas distribution is not uniform, usually the gas phase inlet of the tower reactor has no gas distributor. 

Failure phenomenon:

The total tower efficiency is low, but the design error of the tower pressure drop is not big. Generally, reducing gas phase load or increasing reflux can significantly improve the separation efficiency. In addition, entrainment phenomenon is serious, in high load operation, the tower pressure drop. 

Processing method:

To set up a gas distributor. 
Cause 2

Liquid distributor problem:

1. unreasonable design

2. corrosion of the distributor

3. the installation level is poor

4. exceed the operational flexibility

5. blockage of distributor

Failure phenomenon:

The total tower efficiency is low, the tower pressure drop and design error is not big. Usually, according to the separation efficiency of the tower sections, the problem of which distributor can be determined. 

The efficiency of 1, 3, 4 is low, and the increase of reflux can improve the efficiency. 

Because of the low efficiency caused by 2 and 5, the distributor needs to be serviced. 

Processing method:

Improve the design, Again the production distributor; 

Patch or replace distributor; 

Re - installation, water transfer flatness; 

Adjust the density of the distribution hole; 

Clear the plug. 
Cause 3

Liquid collector leakage

1. the falling liquid pipe is too small or the inlet resistance is large, resulting in the difficulty of lowering liquid, the liquid is leaking from the rising gas pipe; 

2. sealing is not good, leakage or shutters collector splash. 

Failure phenomenon:

The separation efficiency of the tower is poor, the pressure drop is large and the flux is small. 

Processing method:

1. increase the diameter of the falling liquid tube or enlarge the inlet size of the falling liquid pipe; 

2. improve the angle and size of the baffle plate to prevent leakage. 

Cause 4

An error occurred in the installation position of the liquid distributor in the tower. 

Failure phenomenon:

When the tower is low load operation, the separation efficiency is higher. While in high load operation, the separation efficiency is poor. 

Processing method:

Reinstall the liquid distributor as per the design requirements.
Cause 5

Packing installation quality problem:

1. bulk packing is too loose, and the regular packing tray or the spacing between the tower walls is large; 

2. deformation or breakage of the packing. 

Failure phenomenon:

1. the pressure drop is small and the separation efficiency is poor. 

2. the tower pressure drop is large and the operating limit is low. Under low load operation, the separation efficiency of the tower is higher. 

Processing method:

Reinstall the tower filler according to the design requirements. 

Cause 6

The filler is blocked by material and the plastic packing is softened. 

Failure phenomenon:

Large resistance, poor separation efficiency, low operating limit. 

Processing method:

Cleaning or replacing packing. 
Cause 7

The packing is corroded. 

Failure phenomenon:

Tower pressure drop suddenly high and low, separation efficiency is very poor. 

Processing method:

Adopt corrosion resistant material, replace packing material. 

Cause 8

The packing support opening rate is low. 

Failure phenomenon:

High load operation, the tower separation efficiency is low. When low load operation, the tower separation efficiency is high. 

Processing method:

Replace the packing support with sufficient opening rate. 

Cause 9

The opening rate of packing pressing plate is low. 

Failure phenomenon:

High load operation, high pressure drop, low efficiency, easy flooding low load operation, the tower is operating normally.

Processing method:

Replace the opening rate enough large packing plate. 

Cause 10

The packing of different types or models is wrong in the tower. 

Failure phenomenon:

Unable to reach the design load. 

Processing method:

Reinstall the tower filler according to the design requirements.