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洗涤塔原理及特点

 设备用途:

    喷淋洗涤塔是废气处理工程中常用的净化设备。该净化塔有“立式”及“卧式”两种产品。本产品广泛用于化工、电镀、五金、铝材、电器、医药、印染、等机械加工行业中产生的氮氧化物、氯化氢气、氟化氢、氨气、硫酸雾、铬酸雾、氰氢酸气体等水溶性有毒有害气体的净化;亦可适用于氨、硫化氢、酚光气、甲醛、甲醇、胺类等恶臭物质的除臭处理。

工作原理:

    气体由离心通风机压入或吸入进风段,再流动至填料层,与喷淋液接触反应。根据气体净化情况等各项指标,可以加装第二级填料及喷淋装置,处理净化后的气体通过除雾器排出。该洗涤塔净化效率高达95%,阻力损失小能耗低,操作稳定可靠适用范围广。涤塔由塔体、塔板、再沸器和冷凝器组成。在使用过程中再沸器一般用蒸汽加热,冷凝器用循环水导热。在使用前应建立平衡,即通入较纯的产物组分用蒸汽和冷凝水调节其蒸发量和回流量,使其能在塔板上积累一定厚度液体,当混合气体组分通入时就能迅速起到洗涤作用。在使用过程中要控制好一个液位,两个温度和两个压差等几个要点。即洗涤塔液位,气体进口温度,塔顶温度,塔间压差(洗涤塔进口压力与塔顶压力之差),冷凝器压差(塔顶与冷凝器出口压力之差)。一般来说,气体进口温度越高越好,可以防止杂质凝固或液化不能进入洗涤塔,但是也不能太高,以防系统因温度过高而不易控制。控制温度的同时还需保证气体流速,即进口的压力不能太小,以便粉尘能进入洗涤塔。混合气体通入洗涤塔后,部分气体会冷凝成液体而留在塔釜,调节再沸器的温度使液体向上蒸发,再调节冷凝器使液体回流至塔板,形成一个平衡。由于塔板上有一定厚度液体,所以洗涤塔塔间会有一定压差,调节再沸器和冷凝器时应尽量使压差保持恒定才能形成一个平衡。调节塔顶温度时应防止温度过高而使杂质汽化或升华为气体而不能起洗涤作用,但冷凝温度也不宜过低,防止产物液体在冷凝器积液影响使用。在注意以上要点的同时还需注意用再沸器调节洗涤塔的液位,为防止塔釜液中杂质浓度过高产生沉淀,应使其缓慢上涨。

设备材料可以选用:

    玻璃钢、PPH板、PVC板、不锈钢316L等。

结构形式:本设备分单塔体和双塔体。设备具体由贮液箱、塔体、进风段、喷淋层、填料层、旋流除雾层、出风锥帽、检修孔等组成

设备特点:

    1、结构新颖:改变常规的气液两相错流鼓泡的接触方式;

    2、处理风量大:比筛孔塔盘、阀式踏盘处理量大50%;

    3、压力降小:比常规吸收塔小16%;

    4、净化效率高:常规吸收塔效率在70%左右,而新型垂直筛孔塔吸收效率大于85%以上;

    5、灵活性大:可根据不同的废气源增加或减少喷淋塔层;

 The spray scrubber is a common cleaning equipment in the waste gas treatment engineering. The purification tower has " vertical" and " horizontal" two kinds of products. This product is widely used in the purification of water soluble toxic and harmful gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, sulfuric acid fog, chromic acid and hydrogen acid acid in chemical industry, electroplating, hardware, aluminum, electrical apparatus, medicine, printing and dyeing, etc. It can also be applied to the deodorization treatment of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, phenol phosgene, formaldehyde, methanol, amine and other odor substances. 

Working principle

The gas is compressed into or sucked into the air section by a centrifugal fan, and then flows to the packing layer to react with the spray liquid. According to the gas purification conditions and other indicators, the second stage packing and spray device can be installed, and the cleaned gas is discharged through the demister. The purification efficiency of the washing tower is as high as 95 %, the resistance loss is small, the energy consumption is low, the operation is stable and reliable and the scope of application is wide. The scrubber consists of a tower body, a tray, a reboiler, and a condenser. During the use of reboiler, the reboiler is usually heated by steam, and the condenser is thermally conductive. Balance should be established before use, that is, through the steam and condensate of the purer product components to adjust the evaporation and return flow, so that it can accumulate a certain thickness liquid on the tray, and can quickly wash the mixture when the mixture gas component is introduced. In the use process to control a liquid level, two temperature and two pressure difference several points. That is, the level of the scrubber, the inlet temperature of the gas, the tower top temperature, the differential pressure between the towers ( the difference between the inlet pressure of the scrubber and the top pressure ), and the differential pressure between the condenser ( the difference between the top and the condenser outlet pressure ). Generally speaking, the higher the gas inlet temperature, the better, can prevent the impurity solidification or liquefaction cannot enter the washing tower, but also can not be too high, in case the system is too high temperature and not easy to control. The control temperature must also ensure the gas flow rate, that is, the inlet pressure cannot be too small, so that dust can enter the scrubber. After the mixing gas is introduced into the washing tower, some of the gas will be condensed into the liquid and remain in the tower. the temperature of the reboiler will be adjusted to vaporize the liquid upward, and then the condenser will be adjusted to return the liquid to the tray and form a balance. Because there is a certain thickness liquid on the tower plate, there will be a certain pressure difference between the washing tower, adjusting the reboiler and the condenser should keep the pressure differential constant to form a balance. When adjusting the tower top temperature, the temperature should be prevented from being too high and the impurities can be vaporized or sublimated to the gas, but the condensation temperature should not be too low, so as to prevent the product liquid from being used in the condenser liquid. Attention should be paid to the adjustment of the liquid level of the washing tower with reboiler, in order to prevent the impurity concentration in the tower kettle from being too high to precipitate, which should be increased slowly. 

Equipment materials can be used:

Glass fiber reinforced plastics, PPH plate, PVC board, stainless steel 316l, etc. 

Structural form: this equipment is divided into the single tower body and the twin tower body. The equipment is composed of the tank, the tower body, the inlet section, the spray layer, the packing layer, the cyclone demist layer, the wind cone cap, the maintenance hole and so on